Magnetometers

A complete guide

 

Magnetometer is one of the devices which have been sued for the measurement of the magnetic fields. This device has been widely used in the measurement of the magnetic field of the Earth and also in the various geophysical surveys. In the geophysical surveys the device is used for the purpose of detecting any anomalies in the magnetic field. This device has also been used for the detection of the submarines. USA, Australia and Canada are some of the countries which have advanced devices in the military technology and they also control its distribution.

The early devices

The early device was invented in the year 1833 by Carl Friedrich Gauss. He was the head of the Geomagnetic Observatory in Gottingen. He published a paper on the ways to measure the magnetic field of the earth. In this paper, he described a new instrument which can be used for the purpose. This instrument consists of a bar magnet which was suspended horizontally from a fiber made from gold. The differences that were noted own during the oscillation with the bar magnetized and demagnetized allowed the person to calculate the value of the magnetic field of the earth very easily. This is the reason why this has been given so much of importance. Since Gauss made the invention, this device is also known as Gaussmeter. Gauss is the CGS unit for magnetic flux density and has been named after the person. This has been done as a token of honor for the man.

The various types of the device

Magnetometer can be divided into two broad types by individuals- the scalar and the vector ones. The scalar magnetometers are those ones which help in the measurement of the magnetic field which they are subjected to. They are not concerned with the direction of the magnetic field as such in the scalar ones. The vector ones on the other hand have the ability to measure the components in a magnetic field in a particular direction.

Uses of the device in various works

Magnetometers have been used for a wide number of works by the people all over the world. This includes the locating of the objects like sunken ships, submarines, hazards in the coal mines, toxic waste dumps and many other more works. The device also has a great use in the heart beat monitors, sensors in the anti-locking brakes, weather prediction, steel pylons, plate tectonics and also in the planetary explorations.

Depending on the requirement, the device can also be used for aero planes, spacecrafts, helicopter and many other things in the long run. Some of the other fields in which this device can be used are mentioned below.

Archaeology

The device has been used in the archaeological findings all over the world. This can be used fo the finding of the submerged and the buried objects in the long run. This helps very much in the finding of objects which otherwise no one will be able to tack normally. There are many historical things which are submerged in the underground. To help in the finding of such things one can take the help of the device. Fire hearths, magnetic stones like granite and basalt, can be found easily with the help of this device by a person. The ploughed fields often create a magnetic noise in such cases and start the problem for the magnetometer in use for the particular job.

Auroras

Before the light from the aurora even becomes visible to the eye, this device can give the signal for the aurora. This has been used all over the world therefore for the measurement of the solar wind on the magnetic field of the Earth.

Exploration of coal

The device is used for the purpose of exploring for coal in the mines. They are mainly used for the mapping of the basaltic intrusions in the coal mines. This can be dangerous for the resources. The laborers and also for the mining equipment that will be used for the same purpose. The device helps in the location of the impurities in coal and this further helps in the better mapping in the coal mines. In the case of modern surveys done fo the mapping of the coal mines, the GPS technology is also used with this device. This helps in the automatic detection of the magnetic field and hence one can easily locate the place.

For drilling purposes

The drilling companies make use of this device for the detection of the oil or gas beneath the earth. This is done so that unnecessary drilling can be prevented. This is the reason why this device is used beforehand so that the actual place can be located easily by the people.

Military works

For the purpose of the defenses, this device is also actively used by the people. for the monitoring of the submarine activity of the enemies, the devices are laid down at strategic positions in the sea floors. This helps to track the activities of the enemies and prepare beforehand for any kind of attacks. One can tell the depth of the submarine with the help of the measurement done for the magnetic field. The device has also found its use in the weapon navigation systems all over the world.

Exploration for minerals

The magnetic anomalies help in the detection of the ore. This is helpful during exploring for the minerals like iron ore, hematite, and other such minerals which are found in the earth. Australia, Canada, USA, are heavily involved in the task of conducting air borne surveys before they start for the mineral explorations in any part of their country.

Therefore a magnetometer is a very useful device which can be used for multiple purposes by an individual. This is the reason why this device has been so popular since its invention by Gauss. The device helps individuals in works of all levels and has been a time saving device in many cases.